LEDBoard: Using visual feedback to support text entry with physical keyboards

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


14th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing & Ambient Intelligence (UCAmI 2022), Springer Cham, Cordoba, Spain (2022)


Intelligent keyboards, Physical keyboards, text entry, Text Entry Support, Visual feedback


Physical keyboards persist as one of the most common input devices for personal computers. Low familiarity with the keyboard translates to frustration during text entry, as the user constantly shifts their attention between the keyboard and the screen, in order to locate the next key to press, and to inspect input for errors. To decrease the need for attention shifts, we present physical keyboard typists with visual feedback, within their field of view, using an RGB LED strip to indicate spelling errors in different colours. We conducted a user experiment with 36 participants. Users' performance was evaluated a) without visual feedback, b) showing feedback with a LED strip on the keyboard, and c) showing feedback with a LED strip at the bottom of the screen. We find that our prototype improves corrective action behaviour for slow typists and reduces screen-glancing behaviour for fast typists.

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